Undefined behavior ranks among the most baffling and perilous aspects of popular programming languages. This installment of Drill Bits clears up widespread misconceptions and presents practical techniques to banish undefined behavior from your own code and pinpoint meaningless operations in any software—techniques that reveal alarming faults in software supporting business-critical applications at Fortune 500 companies.

Early in the history of programming languages, two schools of thought diverged. Quicksort inventor C.A.R. Hoare summarized one philosophy in his Turing Award lecture:7 The behavior of every syntactically correct program should be completely predictable from its source code. For the sake of safety, security, and programmer sanity, it must be impossible for a program to “run wild.” Ensuring well-defined behavior imposes runtime overheads (e.g., array bounds checks), but predictability justifies the cost. Today, “safe” languages such as Java embody Hoare’s advice.